Cosmology is the study of the large-scale structure and history of the universe. Explaining the structure of the whole universe on a web page seems rather impossible. It's just like chasing of infinity. E.Kant in his book Critiques of pure reason theoretically gave a summary of the magnitude of the universe. The main aim of this web page is to provide an insight which is the result of a very serious research in this domain. This research is motivated by a (object) natural phenomenon that is experimentally verifiable. It's the ideal transcendental object that represents space-time as a quantum classical reality.
Our universe began through a phenomenon referred to as the big bang. But as it turns out according to E.kant, all that has a beginning has an antecedent.
"We must understand, on the contrary, by the term freedom, in the cosmological sense, a faculty of the spontaneous commencing of a state; the causality of which, therefore, is not subordinated to another cause determining it in time. Freedom is in this sense is a pure transcendental idea, which, in the first place, contains no empirical element; the object of which, in the second place, cannot be given or determined in any experience, because it is a universal law of the very possibility of experience, that everything which happens must have a cause, that consequently the causality of a cause, being itself something that has happened, must also have a cause." E.kant Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of the Division of a Whole given in Intuition.
Today the big bang theory is very disputable. After all a flower's bloom has less to do with the idea of an explosion. Our notion of singularity is very much based upon the inexistence of information at the particular instant. Space-time as we envisage it, is absent in a singularity. It's a zero condition which gives birth to a unique universe. The arrow of time, which differentiates the past from the present, is not symmetric due the uncertainty principle which governs the dynamics of the system.
In the case of static close universe which dilates to the maximum size and then contracts. In the dilation process, it arise the birth of galaxies and stars, the collusion of heavenly bodies and thus a very chaotic environment indeed. In this analogy if we reverse the arrow of time (big crunch) the rising reality would be quiet different from the one we witness today. The difference arises because of matter in a different space-time curvature. Gravitation, which is a gateway from special relativity to general relativity, is a corner stone of cosmology. Sir I Newton the founding father of universal gravitation proved that any curve can be analysed in regards to time and from thence the notion of space and time are inseparable.
Einstein postulated for the static universe till it was demonstrated by E.Hubble that stars and galaxies were receding from us. This implies that the expansion is uniform, and the recession is the same wherever the observer happens to be in the universe. The big question that arises form this is the uneven speed of galaxies and above all the existence of blue shifts. The andromdia galaxy instead of moving away is instead closing up with the Milky Way. This is one fundamental reason why the static universe idea should not be discard so easily. Equating the recession of galaxies and stars to the expansion of the universe is just like saying that a boat speeding on a lake means that the very lake is expanding.
Fig 2. Crunchy space time topology.
Einstein In describing the speed of light as the absolute speed established that space and time is after all one single thing that can be stretched or compressed. Time as a dimension slows down when we travel very fast, and massive objects in space with very strong gravitational fields bend space-time. The Einstein equations when run backwards show that the past, the present and future are all on one foothold. Just as the future is out there the past is also realy out there.
In reality the entropy of a system always goes from low to high and couple with the law of energy conservation induce a certain complexity and indeterminacy in all systems. Time asymmetry is the substantiation of the second law of thermodynamics. Entropy is irreversible disorder in all times. Without entropy in question mankind can create a perfect engine. The entropy of our universe is constantly increasing. The microwave background is most likely the expression of the heat lost by our cosmos as a heat engine. It's because of entropy that we can't unscramble scrambled eggshells. In the quantum level we can very well envisage such a possibility if consider the individual fundamental particles of the system. All it takes is to work at the Plank scale physics.
The compromising universe
Fig.2. Space-time curvature and path of light
Scientific research has to continue despite all difficult encounters. We live in a very generous universe. Despite the minuteness of the landscape humans occupy in comparison to the universe as a whole. Mankind has all he needs to understand the universe in which he lives. These realities we live (from universal gravitation to physical constants, the earth and all the elements, the solar system and even distant galaxies) are all predispositions towards our understanding of the universe. It just looks as if the cosmos choose to be comprehended.
Our universe is expanding, and planet earth gives us a clue to the nature of this expansion. The mass of our planet has increased for the past 2 billion years due to certain environmental factors. The main factor is that of collusions at the very beginning of the formation of our solar system. Sporadic showers of meteorites throughout its history of existence followed the collusions. Another factor of great importance is the living organisms that the planet hosts. These living things (animals and plants) in a cycle of life and death contribute in increasing the planet's mass in the sense that they grow and die, and by the fact, increase the volume of matter on the planet. The germination of a plant from a single seed, which weights a few grams to a giant tree, is quite beneficial to the planet. It's the most elegant approach to the creation of matter in the universe. If humans cease to decimate the natural world, the mass and density of the planet will continue to increase and thereby create an eternal equilibrium. The answer to the question of the origin of all the matter in the universe lies in our own backyard. A supernova give rise to new galaxies and stars which in turn bring about black holes and super galaxies etc... Our planet contains the DNA of our universe.
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