The quantum nonlocal process that violate Bell's theorem
is a phenomena that draws a line of separation between relativity and
quantum mechanics. It stipulates that particles of a common source (photons)
sent in space in different directions are concordant when observed separately
in space. This puzzle is above all conferred by the fact that nothing
travels faster then the absolute speed of light. So how come the two
separated particles display a concomitant answer as if they are still
connected by some mysterious thing. This is a puzzle that worry scientist
of the day just like those before, because relativity forbids information
to accelerate beyond the light barrier.
This made Einstein declare that quantum mechanics is an incomplete theorem and that it needs a thought experiment to explain the correlations to fit physical reality. How do two photons correlate so that only one passes a polarizer not both? The measuring of these polarized states of photons is what we refer today as EPR solutions or paradox.
The idea is to put up an experimental setup that yields quantifiable results of these correlations. It's a road map for the theory of knowledge which implies that, any serious physical theory must take into account the description of reality that is given by the theory as well as the concepts with which the theory operates. The finality of this idea is to be able to represent reality by it's corresponding concepts. The kind of completeness needed is most determined by the basic notion of elements of reality that might lead to experimental results, which can be predicted. EPR asserts that " If, without perturbing a physical system in any manner, one can predict with certainty the value of some physical quantity (quantise), then there exist an element of reality corresponding to that quantity. This reality, connected both to the Schrodinger equation and the Heisenberg's uncertainty principle brought havoc to the Bohr's interpretation.
EPR has to give specific examples of reality, which might be mysterious but scientifically verifiable, and the presence of an observer as a subject or an actor is not necessarily important. It is a fundamental knowledge of nature that as everyone knows does not necessarily need human intervention.
EPR a theory about a theory of knowledge; and thus embarked on to give an example that is not simply a classical phenomenon. In the past respectable scientists so as to verify the compatibility of quantum mechanics to physical reality have performed experiments that are up-to-date. There is the hidden variables theory that in it own rights stipulates that there is some "hidden data" that we need to complete quantum theory. It is still a case for sturdy because we belief that human thought is so acquainted to his classical macroscopic world that he finds it difficult to integrate the quantum process. Furthermore, a particle, though we are unable to determine with certainty it's position and velocity has certainly both properties. Note that not able to determine does not mean impossible. The hidden variables are somewhat localised at the immediate vicinity of the emitting apparatus. In the case of a photon polarisation of spin 0 towards two spin 1/2 particles which are fired in opposite directions, the introduction of hidden variables is equated to a symmetrical reduction process that yields definite results or correlations. The introduction of this reduction process punctuated by the property of the photons spatially separated induces the phenomena of entanglement. The faster than light barrier is not violated because of the existence of a predetermined configuration space.
A hint of an answer is that hidden variables (in this case) entail that the photon pair has global and individual properties intertwined. The global property is nothing other than Newton's third law of action reaction. The above setup attributes individual properties to each separated particle. A reduction process rightly implemented then gives a definite answer.
The reduction process is a way of accounting for the behaviour of the hidden variables in the measurement, and one has always to remember that "yes" rather than "no" is the expectation of the results. There are many EPR type experiments that can yield substantial results but the author of this site, as a fervent advocate of hidden variables theory prefers to stick to this one example.
"In a theory in which parameters are added to quantum
mechanics to determine the results of individual measurements, without
changing he statistical predictions, there must be a mechanism whereby
the setting of one measuring device can influence the reading of another
instrument, however remote. Moreover, the signal involved must propagate
instantaneously so that such a theory could not be Lorentz invariant".
See John Bell on EPR Speakable and unspeakable in quantum mechanics.
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