There is a need to unveil a fundamental theory, which is the basis of nature. To get somewhere near this goal we have to first and foremost get back to basics i.e. attain a deeper understanding of the elements (earth, wind, fire and water) interlocked with the four fundamental forces of nature: The gravitational force, the electromagnetic force and the two nuclear forces "week and strong". The answer to all our headaches can be obtained with nature's manifestation of a Frank Hertz type of experiment. In this case we don't have to regulate voltages, masses of particles or even the type of particle involved photon or classical particle.

As far as we can understand, quantum mechanics can only be explained in terms of very tiny electrons, which spin at very high speed in very large particle accelerators. But if this form of experimentation is the only means then humanity still underestimates the mysterious side of quantum mechanics. Surely accelerators have helped us to understand the nature of quantum processes and will continue to play a major role, but there is a certain mystery involved in quantum mechanics that only nature could reveal to us. 

If Einstein's theory of relativity can be applied to minute particles like photons electrons quarks or to astronomical objects like our solar system or even galaxies or further more to the universe, it can also be applied in-between the two extremes; To energies at the humane level like the snooker ball or the rugby. What I am trying to explain is that the quantum theory that includes Einstein's theory of general relativity plus quantum gravity is the very basis of any sensible quantum theory.

Time is a parameter that can dilate or contract like objects in motion. It is the first relative of space the second being gravity. There is a correlation between space, time and gravity. A clock in a strong gravitational field runs slower. The following sentences can give us some insight to the whole idea of dilation of space-time and contraction of length. For a deeper understanding see the Lorentz transformation.

1 A very big space and a small time span (like the speed of light).

2 A very big time interval in a very small space or distance ( like a snail going around it's business).

These are two alternative states with similar reference frames and above all determined by the positions of the observer. The principle of equivalence can here be determined by the system of dimensional analysis of the two reference frames .The nature of the observer is of fundamental significance. The principle of equivalence as described by Einstein's (space elevator trusted upwards) induces the proportionality of mass to its gravitational field. See chapter on Gravity.

It is hard to admit, but we belief that we are all time travellers in one of Everett's worlds and this makes us wonder about the validity of our dating system. Singularity as explained is a state where 'space and time' disappears. Real nothingness. Just as the light bulb before pushing the switch, for after light springs on and enters into space at its known speed.

We know that the universe is moving due to the unequal distribution of galaxies. We have very dense parts of the universe as well as very sparse part of it and the positions are changing every second.

THE MISSING EXPERIMENT

In quantum mechanics to be or not to be is not a question but a fact. It is part of a state of existence. Everybody knows that Santa clause doesn't exist but in December most people feel his physical presence, existence or representation. Santa clause is sort of a humanistic creation of Quantum entanglement.     

Fig 1: Representation of a quantum classical experiment whereby Psi is the part that can be calculated and all 'dots' represents probability amplitudes.

   

A simplified model of the universe

The existence of a universal dipole is something to be reckoned with if we really want to understand our universe. The thermal energy that this dipole emits is what renders our universe dynamic. If we imagine the matter in our universe (stars galaxies and gases) as individual particles. The role of the dipole is to attract and repel these particles. All matter originates from the dipole is propelled in space and time at the speed of light. As these objects move they encounter other objects and collide either violently or smoothly according to the gravitational force involved. The violent collusion produce super nova and the smooth ones, systems that attain some kind of a dynamic stability like our solar system. The effect of these collisions is also a reduction of the speed of the objects. Just as galaxies which had never, collide with other galaxies are the most distant and the fastest moving. The speed of galaxies is proportional to the density of the universe. There is a point in spacetime (because of the energy density proportionality) where these galaxies loose all their energies. At this point the universal dipole takes over and inverses the charge of the object and pull it back to a new destination. The galaxy heads towards the dipole (see Maxwell electro magnetic forces and equations). For galaxies which have had no encounters, they continue their journeys their speed decreasing proportionally to the density of the universe. Is the universe just like a yo-yo, or like a balloon on the process of being inflated? This leading to the even dispersion of Galaxies. If it were like a baloon, then there would never have been the merging of galaxies or supernovas or even neutron stars. This is so because Newton's states that a body in motion in space and time stays as it is till acted upon by an other body. The paradox is why then do we have blue shifts? Galaxies moving towards a dipole are more likely to collide with other massive objects than those moving away from the dipole. This leads us to belief the theory that the universe's expansion and contraction is proportional to the ratio blue shift red shift.

The increasing Need for a Universal Dipole

Nature has always proven that there is a central point of command for all things. For humans the central point is the brain. For our solar system it is the sun. For a single cell it is the nucleus and for our planet mother earth it is the core. There is no exception to this rule and the Newtonian principles help us to have a better understand of these matters. Even the origin of our universe has been attributed to the Big Bang. So the conjecture is that the mechanics of our universe has it's own power house somewhere in space and time. The power house is backed by the repulsion force.

Dotworlds: dipole Model of the evolving universe

Fig 2 Model of the evolving universe

To obtain the right quantum gravity, we belief that only the forces of nature can be permitted unconditionally. i.e. any mechanized form of parameter regulation could lead to uncertain answers. The model should be exposed to the normal atmospheric condition rather than a closed up tunnel or cat in a box phenomenon.  The definition of matter here is both classical and quanta. The beauty of this discovery lies on quantum classical entanglement or more precisely the quantum field theory. Energy conservational laws and the very basis of the principles of the natural laws are evident. It is as if we are looking at the cosmos at work. This is the very basis of a quantum field theory. This field annihilates any gravitational force above 0 and thus condone a mini universe at the classical level. The theory is background dependant.

Gödelian theory and the age of the Universe

The existence of a dipole would compromise the age of the universe, as we know it today (fifteen to twenty billion years using the Hubble constant).  This is so because the intrinsic property of a dipole is that it is cyclic and obeys Maxwell's principles that waves are carriers of energy. Like the nerve cell, from a pinch on the skin, the signal is sent to the brain and back before the twig. So would the dipole render the universe "cyclic" with galaxies and stars in cycles? The question is, could we find another way of estimating the age (proportionality, velocity, distance) of our universe without using the speed of light and Doppler's shift as an analytic parameter? Yes we think we can by using Gödel's theorem of proofs or even axioms of the ratio blue shift red shift. The idea is that, a statement can be true but unprovable. Like if we say the universe is 15 billion years old. We can put up a function, which disapproves this assertion.   

Gödelian EPR

The idea is that of a car that has five digits on its counter. The guy who bought this new car is a very busy man and travels a lot. He was always on the road rolling twelve hours a day at a speed of 150k km/h. In three months the counter made it to 99999 then reinitialised to 00000. The guy after doing another 05000km decided to sell the car. He also decide not to tell anyone that the actual read of the counter should be105000 so as to maintain the best price for the car. This was further made acceptable by the fact that after taking the car for a very big wash it looked as if it has just been bought. The engine was (clean) and no mechanical problem whatsoever. He finally sold the car for a good price and bought a new one of the same type and mark. The car had 5000 kilometres on its counter. This truth cannot be computed because when ever the counter reaches the last digit it stops as n+1 has been omitted. P is improvable in the system and would be assigned the quality true. This is so because the young guy who bought the car had never hard of Gödel's incompleteness theory and told all his friends that he bought a second hand car with only 5000km on dashboard. This is a true statement with a loophole. As have said Einstein "Quantum behaviour is a product of a substratum of chaotic classical forces".

THE FOUR FORCES

ELECTOMAGNETIC FORCE

PHOTON

STRONG FORCE

GLUONS

WEAK FORCE

W+W- Z°

GRAVITY

GRAVITONS

Why is that quantum mechanics can only be envisaged in very minute elements as electrons or protons or even leptons and quarks?

Is it because it is rather impossible to reproduce the solar system for no laboratory can contain the moon as it is let alone the system or galaxies? We think that photons are chosen because they seem to contain all the properties of a perfect system. One thing certain is that, to have a valid quantum experiment the parameters always including a central point as mentioned above(nucleus, or a star around which everything evolves). Power is light and light is power. The big bang or super nova explosions all start from a central point. A very strong source of energy is always a necessity. In Schrödinger's cat experiment the cyanide represents the central point. A central point is a must. I might sound simplistic but sure is the concepts of this world but in real teams complex in their own way; something simple and straightforward to Einstein might most probably be senseless to the pygmies of the Congo. 

The link between the quantum parameters and classical is part of a missing link. To solve the quantum gravity problem, one has to consider or to put in to consideration the classical field; a quantum field is always part of a classical field. Quantum processes are always contained. One is tempted to put a barrier between the two but we live in a classical world just as the molecules, atoms, quarks or machos. The microwave background is everywhere in the universe. This seems to proves that the aftermath of the big bang is an astronomical gravitational field which is somewhere out in space. This field is what is holding the cosmos together. The cosmological nucleus is a must just as the atom or the cell and its nucleus. It is the heart of the cosmos. Its non-existence is like our solar system without the sun. You can call it quantum gravity.

Dotworlds The colours of life

 Fig 3   The colours of life

The fact is "without gravity there is no quantum mechanics and without quantum mechanics there is no gravity"; these two cannot be separated. In other words whenever we talk about quantum mechanics we should have gravity in mind and vice versa. If we accept this paradox then the whole question of quantum entanglement begins to take shape. Every thing on earth endures the effect of gravity whether it is a plant an animal or a rock  .see Galileo explains. Seen from this point of view we might now try to envisage life without gravity by having quantum mechanics in mind. At the quantum scale gravity is present but very minute.  The effect of gravity on our brains has been (microtubules) proven. It is deeply enrolled in our sub consciousness. And our brains are growing because of gravity. The liquid in our ears prevents us from scrambling to the ground thinking that we heading for the skies. The effect of gravity on liquids is that it stretches it towards the gravitational field. Simply our lives can be analysed in consideration of our motions. The best example is the gathering of a crowd. The presence of the Pope at a particular site «let's say Berlin in Germany» attracts people from different locations countries or even Continents. If the pope is suppose to hold Mass at 10am at the square, all those interested in attending the mass would try to be at the square before 10am. Now let imagine that each and every being is a photon. The pope being the central point attracts all these particles. At 9am if all the particles "beings" are localised by the G P S system and plotted on a map we can observe situation of convergence to a central point and of divergence after the mass, but no observer can determine with certainty the time pace or world lines of any participant.

Each individual moves in or out in his or her own freewill. Non-computability of the human spirit. This is the basis of the principle of uncertainty, which is a corner stone of quantum mechanics yet we endure it everyday without thinking of it. Disorder is the order of the day. We are just like ants. We are just as have said Einstein "products of a substratum of chaotic classical forces". Quantum uncertainty demonstrated by human natural everyday conduct. Is it that human behaviour is an example of many worlds' parallel universes? Each human "individual" has his own history. You cannot transpose one human being upon another. Ever individual with his own universe; history, time space etc. where is the quantum mechanics in this disorder? Now let us imagine one individual in this particular incident, from his head to toe. After all, all things are made of atoms. So we are made of atoms or quantum processes especially neuronal activity in our brains. In regards to the MWI "many worlds interpretation", there are manifestations of it all around us. Everett has some reason in quantum processes. Finally there are instances were a galaxy is torn off apart and is catapulted in a different space vector. Each part drifts in space as a separate galaxy. There are instances where galaxies merge in space to form one single galaxy. To the question, how many worlds are there? I would say as much as one can imagine. GOD said if you want to write down HIS creation all the waters in the oceans would not suffice as ink.   

The man Between Einstein and Newton

Let us just imagine M Jordan bouncing a basketball at a steady paste professionally. He exerts a force to the ball, which hits the ground then bounces back. Where is the gravity in this in regards to Einstein's phrase "gravitation is the geometrical consequence of the effects of space-time"? The consequence force that Michael Jordan applies on that Ball and the path opposite force from the ground cancels out (taking into consideration the density of the air, the raggedness of the ground). He is in charge of the ball's motion applying Newton's equations of motion and Einstein's E=MC^2.  He creates equilibrium. Left forces /right forces up forces/down forces clockwise and anti clockwise.

THE HEAT PARADOX or radiation paradox

  Axioms of Choice:

* 1   Heat and matter is present everywhere in the universe.

  * 2   Matter always reacts with heat or heat with matter.

* 3   Heat and matter react and thus obey Newton's third law of motion (in every action there is a reaction).

* a. Heat is a form of energy wave radiation particle.

* b.  Heat can both accelerate and decelerate Matter.

* c.   F = ma the force generated by the heat on matter can be calculated by (Second law mass times acceleration).

* I.   At the speed of light (light is a form of heat energy) relativity» in Schrödinger's equation can be justified.

 * II   Heat can both be matter and anti-matter and energy and light at the same time. Maxwell's wave equation applies here.

* III     Light waves or particles remain in their own motion state until and unless it counters and equal force which makes it stop completely. Quantum gravity in Maxwell's equations or the Debroglie wave functions. Heat and matter is everywhere in universe despite the fact that we live in a cold universe. 

Nature at work

A source of energy determines the direction of time. And when the particles reach the confluence of the sphere they turned around and head for the source of energy. Just like the yo-yo. Let us note the powers of x and y can always be recorded and can serve as a source of history in case of us wanting to go back in time and so as to view the origin of the big bang. At a certain point in time the particles rebind at the central point forming a sort of a singularity.  The operation is both reversible and irreversible (the uncertainty phenomena is a most in quantum mechanics). Reversible! (Thanks to the computers of the digital age and all the technology around us. For the sake of learning lets us take the present and record it so that it can be read as the past in the future. This is the same as taking a picture of something. The photo records space-time as it has existed at that point. This is the only way we can image the origin of the future. Or even try to answer questions like: Is a big bang only followed by a big crunch, Why is the universe expanding, What was the density of the singularity before the big bang? Will there ever be any big crunch? Why is it that there are certain galaxies (Andromeda) moving in the opposite direction? Why do comets or even more astronomical objects, "Stephen Hawking's famous black holes" exist. Are black holes present in all galaxies?

Einstein said that a gravitational field has a 'relative existence' The probability of the particle going through a given path was unaccountable but can be calculated at a given point and time of the experiment.

The universe is still expanding. Time is flowing and occupying new space. The first picture produced by Friedman using Einstein's general theory of relativity. This showed that the universe is a "simple complexity". Using the general theory the big bang became obvious. The unnecessary cosmological constant advanced by Einstein made him "Einstein" a man amongst men; with their desires for discoveries, learning, power and all those feelings that make men. Einstein is humane. But when Einstein said that this was his greatest mistake did he really mean what he says or was this a conjecture (a challenge to be proven in the future). In general relativity terms, time is relative to space and the speed of light. We gain time when we travel at the speed of light or around a strong magnetic force. A rudimentary explanation of time travel is all living organisms. You can never transcribe one living thing upon another living thing. Every living thing is marked by time from its beginning. We are all time travellers. There was a singularity in the beginning but it has been overtaken by the positive time, which started just after the "big" light. Let us be bold and think of the universe before the big bang. This unexplained time was infinite and void. It is a negative universe and time itself was negative in its own way. As from point 0, which was marked by the big bang, time became positive and quantum gravity emerged with the birth of our universe.  I accept that, a theory of everything is bound to include a theory of gravity as has been suggested by Steven Hawking and others. Einstein's theory of relativity alone cannot explain the early universe. It has to be related to quantum theory of gravity. The uncertainty principle broke down after the big bang because singularity is a static phenomenon where gravity is nil. Zero doesn't mean that it does not exist. Zero itself is something to be reckoned with. It is just a pass way from negative values to positive values, or from the quantum world to the classical world.

THE BIG EXPLOSION

Now let us consider TIME itself. Negative time can be imagined in the case of a double universe. GOD said let there be light and there was light. Before he said so didn't mean that there was no universe. It only meant that there was no light.      

·         All that have a mass is directly affected by gravity.

·         Light has a mass so light is affected by gravity.

·         Gravity is a form of acceleration.

The effects of gravity are subject of deeper concern in quantum mechanics.

In search of the hidden variable

Objective reality is independent from any theory and the explanation of a physical theory must take into account the reality given by the theory and the concepts that makes the theory work. Reality is sometimes hidden from our normal methods of perception, which is the basis of our knowledge and certainty. The rising sun seems bigger than the sun at midday yet we know that this appearance of a bigger sun is just a manipulation of our perceptions by certain elements of nature. Thus algebra and arithmetic is the only science in which we can carry on a chain of reasoning to any degree of intricacy and yet preserve a perfect exactness and certainty. When we look at the ocean from outer space the surface seems flat but when we get near it we find that it is rugged with waves (John wheeler). The hidden constant can be visualised in the same perspective. It is somewhere there but invisible unless we get a little closer to it. The question now is to prove that it is Einstein's cosmological constant or quantum gravity or some other thing. 

Now, let us consider one of the particles as a representative of Schrödinger's cat, the movement spin that the particle effectuate to and fro as the parameters between life and dead in the experiment. As the particle moves from the source energy upon which it soullessly depends, it looses some power "say gets old" and by the time it gets to the other end it has lost some energy. This can also be equated to complex number weightings or even more daunting to squares of negative numbers; i^2 Part of the energy has been used as waves to propel the particle to the other end and the other was lost in space. Second law of thermodynamics states that: to have a perfect heat engine " universe" it is impossible to extract an amount of energy and use it all to perform a task. Some energy must be lost as a result. So as it looses most of its energy it is left with only two alternatives either it gets stock for ever in the event horizon or due to electromagnetic waves reversed to its origin; either the cat is dead or alive / the big bang and big crunch; R the probability of each possibility is 50 per cent. But for this experiment, the problem arises when we consider a certain number of Cats (n) and photons (N) then the distribution of cats and photons have to be distinguished. In other words all diamonds share the same denomination but differ in shape, colour origin or even hardness.

Finally belief that the photons alone cannot ascertain a quantum state. The cat has to be offered other alternatives like the presence of the mirror, the cyanide or the photo-cell. This is what is meant by logic in quantum physics. All the parameters have to be considered in view of the probabilistic nature of the problem. The measuring apparatus and the measured are to be accounted for. The observer inside and the one outside have quiet different views. There is nothing that tells us that they differ in reasoning for the one inside, observes the fact and the outsider before opening the door is in doubt dead or alive linear combination. There is nothing that tells us that he doesn't know what is happening inside.

A good theory cannot be independent of reality; it has to have a direct connection with reality. Galileo's disclosure that "in the absence of atmospheric friction, all bodies fall at the same rate under gravity or Einstein's E=MC^2 is inescapable. As Einstein discovered, if an object (the sun, fire or bulb) emits energy in the form of light its mass will be decreased by the amount of energy divided by the velocity of light squared M=E/C^2

 E =Natural source of energy M = Mass of particle C^2= Speed of light squared

The unified theory means that M=E/C^2  * 1 = M=E/C^2

Dotworlds Quanta

Fig 4 Wave pattern of photons of light display quarks in their respective positions.

LIGHT (Particle and Wave)

The Maxwell -Boltzmann distribution in statistics states that a cat is a cat but is of  different colours and ages (presumption of distinguishability)

* We cannot restrict the number of particles "cats" or energy "photons" within a given state. The moment we interfere with the experiment things change.   

* All states have the same probability within a system.

* At equilibrium, the distribution of particles among the energy states will take the most probable distribution consistent with the total number of energy and particles (cats and photons).

f(E) =1/Ae^E/KT

After all in quantum mechanics:

Probability is foremost and is suppose to represent a certain reality. So quantum states are objective but not real because the future is not pre-determined.

Only nature can determine the outcome or the results as no intelligent mortal has ever proved the manifest.

Man is there only to ascertain the results or "observe" i.e. determine the method of observation and the particles to be observed. The Einstein equation E=mc^2 has always been there before Einstein was born. Though he rooted it out. God does not play dice, but when he decides to do so, HE knows the result even before throwing it. GOD is before time, within time, and after time all at the same moment. HE is within the speed of light and past the speed of light etc. GOD created the heavens and earth to set forth his truth.

Quantum mechanics is God's opus.

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QUANTUM MECHANICS